Archive for the ‘Research’ category

Lung cancer deaths higher among people living with HIV

September 27, 2017

According to the U.S. National AIDS Strategy report, about 1 in 5 American adults smoke. Among adults living with HIV, the number of people who smoke is 2 to 3 times greater. The report also states that smoking can cause health risks specifically for people who are living with HIV. For example, smokers with HIV are at higher risk (as compared to nonsmokers with HIV) of developing smoking-related cancers, bacterial pneumonia, COPD, heart disease, and oral candidiasis (thrush).

Furthermore, previous research found that HIV-positive smokers lose years of life to cigarettes as compared to nonsmokers with HIV.

If all of that wasn’t enough to convince gay and bi men with HIV to kick the habit, a new study published in The Journal of the American Medical Association narrows the range of research, focusing specifically on projected lung cancer deaths.

The researchers found that nearly 25 percent of people who adhere well to anti-HIV medications but continue to smoke will die from lung cancer. Among smokers who quit at age 40, only about 6 percent will die of lung cancer. The authors also found that people with HIV who take antiviral medicines but who also smoke are from 6 to 13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than from HIV/AIDS.

“Quitting smoking is one of the most important things that people with HIV can do to improve their health and live longer,” Travis Baggett, MD, MPH, of the MGH Division of General Internal Medicine and coauthor of the study, said in a recent press release. “Quitting will not only reduce their risk of lung cancer but also decrease their risk of many other diseases, such as heart attack, stroke and emphysema.”

To read a press release about the study, click here. To find out more about how you can quit smoking, click here and here.  For more information about Health Alerts, go to the Health Alerts page of this Website. To subscribe to the Pitt Men’s Study Health Alerts, send an email to rgy2@Pitt.edu, with the word subscribe in the subject line.

 

Health Alerts are presented by the HIV Prevention and Care Project and the Pitt Men’s Study at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, with funding from the Pennsylvania Department of Health.

Pitt Men’s Study launching new initiatives in 2017

August 24, 2017

Wondering what’s up with the Pitt Men’s Study?

Principle investigator, Dr. Charles Rinaldo spells it all out in an open letter to the Study’s participants, including detailed information about upcoming research for 2018. Click on a printable PDF file of Dr. Rinaldo’s letter to get all the details.

For more information about the Pitt Men’s Study, contact us at:

Pitt Men’s Study
P.O. Box 7319
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
412-624-2008 or toll-free at 1-800-987-1963
PMS@stophiv.pitt.edu

New injectable antiretroviral treatment proved to be as effective as standard oral therapy

August 6, 2017

From Science Daily

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) intramuscularly administered may have the same effectiveness as current oral treatments. This is the main conclusion of the Phase II clinical trial carried out by 50 centers around the world — 9 in Spain — to which the team of Dr. Daniel Podzamczer, principal investigator of the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and Chief of the HIV and STD Unit of the Infectious Diseases Service of Bellvitge University hospital (HUB) has contributed. The results of the trial, published by the journal The Lancet, pave the way to the implantation of all-injectable antiretroviral therapies with a lower frequency of administration, which would imply a significant improvement of the quality of life of HIV patients.

Read the full article.

Dr. Larry Corey of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network talks about what it will take to rid the world of AIDS

May 4, 2017

From Time Health

In many ways, the domestic and global fight against HIV/AIDs has made great strides. Yet there are still millions of people who are newly diagnosed with HIV globally each year.

One preventive strategy receiving renewed attention and progress is an HIV vaccine. Dr. Larry Corey, the principal investigator of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network based at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, recently launched a highly ambitious HIV vaccine study, which will test a protective antibody on thousands of people around the world.

Dr Corey“I am cautiously optimistic,” said Corey during a panel discussion at Fortune’s Brainstorm Health conference on Tuesday. Corey says researchers could start seeing very early results from the trials as early April 2019.

Beyond a vaccine, getting people rapid treatment is another way to keep infection rates down, and help people with an HIV diagnosis live a long and healthy life. Dr. Diane Havlir, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), has been part of an innovative program in San Francisco focused on substantially curb the spread of HIV in the city. A key pillar of the program’s success lies in its strategy to get recently infected people into treatment on the same day as their diagnosis.

“We need to work together in order to reduce the number of HIV infections,” said Havlir during the conference, adding that getting patients into treatment quickly can help empower them to take charge of their treatment. It’s also an inexpensive strategy.

But what will it take to get to zero infections worldwide? Both Corey and Havlir said public commitment and cross sector engagement will be critical. “For sure, HIV is the epidemic of our time,” said Corey. “I think to some extent the health care of our generation is going to be defined by how we handle [it] … We need sustained commitment.”

Havlir agrees. “Invest in research. Invest in care. Either we pay now, or we pay later,” she said.

Watch the video interview here.

Addressing stigma, coping behaviors and mechanisms in persons living with HIV could lead to better health outcomes

April 25, 2017

From medicalxpress.com

Investigators from the University of Alabama at Birmingham have developed a new conceptual framework highlighting how unique dimensions of individual-level HIV-related stigma might affect the health of those living with HIV. According to the paper’s authors, little is known about the mechanisms through which stigma leads to worse health behaviors or outcomes.

The framework, published in the American Journal of Public Health, looks at perceived community stigma, experienced stigma, internalized stigma and anticipated stigma as barriers to both HIV prevention and engagement in care. An intersectional framework looks at how multiple social statuses intersect at an individual level, such as HIV status, race, gender or sexual orientation, and a broader level, such as structural stigmas in society including racism, sexism, HIV-related stigma and classism, to produce health inequalities.

The conceptual framework suggests that individual-level dimensions of HIV-related stigma operate through interpersonal factors, mental health, psychological resources and biological stress pathways.

“Those living with HIV often fight fear and experiences of HIV-related stigma, affecting their quality of life and mental health, as well as engaging poorly in their HIV care and treatment,” said Janet Turan, Ph.D., professor in the UAB School of Public Health Department of Health Care Organization and Policy. “Our proposed conceptual framework for individual-level dimensions of stigma and potential individual and interpersonal mechanisms explains how stigma affects each individual’s HIV-related health.”

HIV-infected individuals may be judged by others to be in marginalized social groups, causing social stress because of their minority social position, which could lead to important implications for their health.

Read more at: https://medicalxpress.com.

More gay, bi men with HIV receiving care, disparities remain

April 20, 2017

From Reuters Health

Gay and bisexual men in the United States who are diagnosed with HIV are promptly receiving the necessary treatments more often than in the past, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Still, black gay and bisexual men are less likely than their white counterparts to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART) to keep the human immunodeficiency virus in check, the researchers found.

They write in the Journal of Infectious Diseases that one goal of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy was to get 85 percent of people to a healthcare facility within three months of being diagnosed with HIV by 2015. By 2020, the goal is to get 85 percent of people diagnosed with HIV to care within one month.

The study team previously published 2008 and 2011 results from the CDC’s National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, which includes data from 20 cities on adult HIV-positive men who have sex with men – a group at particular risk for HIV infection. The new study adds data from 2014.

Altogether, 1,144 men provided data in 2008, 1,338 in 2011 and 1,716 in 2014. The proportion of white men taking the survey fell 14 percentage points between 2008 and 2014, but the proportion of black men participating increased by 13 percentage points during the same period.

The average age of the men dropped over the study period, too. Insurance coverage increased from 75 percent in 2008 to 86 percent in 2014, which was the first year of coverage expansion under the Affordable Care Act.

In 2008, 79 percent of the men were seen at a healthcare facility within three months of their diagnosis. That measure – known as linkage to care – increased to 87 percent by 2014.

With the 2020 goal in mind, the researchers analyzed how many men were seen at a healthcare facility within one month of their HIV diagnosis. In 2014, 78 percent of men were linked to care within one month, which the researchers say suggests the 2020 goal is feasible.

When the researchers looked at how many of the men were receiving ART, they found the rate increased from 69 percent in 2008 to 88 percent in 2014.

People with insurance or with higher levels of education or income were more likely to be linked to care within a short amount of time and be on ART.

In all years, a higher percentage of ARV treatment was observed among whites, according to the researchers – and this disparity persisted in 2014. The proportion of white men on ART were 9 percentage points higher than the proportion of black men.

“We’re moving in the right direction, but the fact that the disparities are persisting in 2014 when we’ve had access to antiretroviral therapy for so long is troubling,” said Jennifer Kates, who is vice president and director of global health and HIV policy at the Kaiser Family Foundation in Washington, D.C.

The findings suggest black men are being linked to care at roughly the same rate as white men, but they’re not getting equal access to ART, said Kates, who wasn’t involved in the new study.

“There are some systemic issues on the healthcare system side – from providers to insurance – that this study wasn’t designed to look at,” she told Reuters Health.

Read the full article.

Syphilis rates among gay men more than 100x greater than stright men

April 17, 2017

From medpagetoday.com

The first state-specific analysis of syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) shows they have dramatically higher incidence than men whose only sexual partners are female, the CDC is reporting.

Data from 2015, analyzed with a new methodology, show that the incidence of primary and secondary syphilis among MSM was 309.0 cases per 100,000 people, compared with 2.9 per 100,000 among men who reported sex with women only, according to Alex de Voux, PhD, of the CDC’s epidemic intelligence service, and colleagues at the CDC and Emory University in Atlanta.

The disparity was even more marked when the rate among MSM was compared with the 1.8 cases per 100,000 population seen among women, the researchers reported in the April 7 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Read the full article.